Thursday, September 12, 2013

Oral Presentation | Effective Use of Connectives


Oral Presentation | Effective Use of Connectives

There are some presenters who use meaningless expressions to fill the time gap between one thought and another. In casual conversation these are not irksome but in public speaking they distract attention and impede the smooth flow of communication. Often this habit is developed by speakers who are failed to make an effective use of connectives. It is therefore essential to know the various kinds of connectives and their use in oral presentation. The ones that are frequently used are discussed below.

Use of Transitions
Transitions are words or phrases that indicate the ends of one thought and movement to another. Examples:

·         After having said that, I must emphasize the significance of what I stated in the beginning.

·         We have been discussing the scope of the topic so far. I believe it is time now to focus attention on the main features.

·         The financial aspect of the proposal is only one of the considerations. The others are management and technical aspects.

·         In addition to formal instruction, an informal interaction between students and faculty is essential for enriching the process of education.

Internal Previews
Internal previews are brief statements letting the audience know what the presenter would take up for next for discussion. Very often these are introduced before the discussion of the main point in the speech. Example:

·         After discussing the main provisions of the budget, we shall discuss its impact on the growth of agriculture and industry.

This statement would prepare the audience to take in the presenter's views in the sequence indicated. It is, however, not necessary to give a preview of every main point. You should give it when you feel it would help the audience in keeping up with the track of your ideas. 

Internal Summaries
Internal summaries help the audience to recall what they have heard up to that point of time. These are useful at the end of the discussion of a number of complicated points or explanations of a complex problem or situation. You have to decide at what stage of presentation you should give it. Remember that an internal summery is brief and precise, focusing attention on the most significant content of what you stated earlier and establishing a connection with what is to follow. Sometimes, an internal preview follows an internal summery. This helps the audience to grasp easily what is being presented. Example:

·         In short, words are arbitrary symbols, abstractions of objects and ideas. And their value lies in the meaning they convey, not in how they look and sound.

Use of Signposts
Signposts are brief statements indicating where you are in presentation. These may take different forms. The commonly used ones are numerical signposts and interrogative signposts. An example of each is given below:

·         The first feature of the internal evaluation system is its transparency. The second feature is that it provides immediate feedback. The third feature is that it promotes continuous learning.

Each of the above statements would be followed by an explanation and illustrations.

·         What are the causes of runaway population growth in our country? What steps should we take to solve this problem?

The first question should be followed by a discussion of the various causes and the second by a statement of measures to be taken to solve the population problem.

In addition to the above four types of connectives, a few frequently phrases are listed below to help you integrate your presentation.

(i) I would like to repeat the statement I just made.........
(ii) The most significant aspect to which I wish to draw your attention..........
(iii) An understanding of this factor is essential for comprehending the rest of my presentation........
(iv) I would like to recall what I stated in the beginning..........
(v) Be sure to keep in mind the point I just made...........


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